The ‘Invisible’ Garden of Scent

“隐形花园”:探索植物香气的世界

纽约时报双语版-“隐形花园”:探索植物香气的世界

馥郁的爬藤玫瑰可以把香气带到二楼,或是让入口充满芳香。图中是香气温和,会重复开花的新黎明。
Ken Druse

In his latest book, Ken Druse candidly admits to a particular botanical bias. “When I come across a beautiful flower,” he writes, “the first thing I do (after checking for a bumblebee) is lean in to sample its smell.”

肯·德鲁士(Ken Druse)在新书中坦白说,他对植物有一种特定的偏见。“当我遇到一朵漂亮的花,”他写道,“我首先会弯下腰(在确认没有大黄蜂后)闻闻气味。”

And if there’s no scent? “I find the blossom somewhat lacking.”

没有香味怎么办?“那我会觉得这朵花美中不足。”

Mr. Druse is the author of 20 garden books including, most recently, “The Scentual Garden: Exploring the World of Botanical Fragrance,” which was awarded the American Horticultural Society’s top honor in March. He challenges those with gardens large and small — or even just a collection of houseplants or herbs in pots — to do a fragrance inventory and then punch up the scent quotient in strategic spots, taking into account multiple seasons and various times of day.

德鲁士著有超过20本园艺书,最新出版的一本名为《气味花园:探索植物香气的世界》(The Scentual Garden: Exploring the World of Botanical Fragrance)。3月,这本书获得了由美国园艺协会(American Horticultural Society)颁发的最高荣誉奖。他挑战所有拥有花园的人,无论面积大小,甚或只拥有室内盆栽或草本植物,让大家在考虑不同季节和一天中的不同时间后,列一份香气清单,让一些重要地方的香气更加浓郁。

Scent is what Mr. Druse calls “the invisible garden,” a design layer often overlooked while we’re distracted by shopping for something in a particular color, or searching out a plant with a particular shape, scale or purpose. But factoring in fragrance delivers another sensory dimension.

德鲁士将气味称为“隐形花园”,我们通常会因为专注于寻找某种颜色,或某种形状、大小或功能的植物而忽略了气味这层设计因素。但将气味考虑进去能够增添一层感官乐趣。

No two noses are exactly alike, so the scents that you favor, from floral-sweet to herbal, fruity or spicy, are highly personal — and open to extremes of interpretation that Mr. Druse calls “the nose of the beholder.”

每个人的鼻子都是独特的,所以你喜欢的气味都是个人喜好,不管是花的香甜、草本味、果味或是辛辣味,有可能受到极端的诠释,德鲁士将这种情况称为“鼻子的主观感受”。

Focus on the Most-Traveled Paths

关注最常经过的路径

Add fragrance to places where you can sample it as you walk by — between your front door and driveway, for example. That should be obvious, but too often we forget.

将香味添加到你走过就能闻到的地方,例如正门和车道之间。那个地方应该不难想到,却经常被忽略。

It doesn’t need to be flowers, either, Mr. Druse said, recalling a low-growing “hedge” of hardy, upright rosemary leaning over the edge of a brick path on a university campus on Long Island. “Imagine brushing up against the evergreen herb as you walk by, and filling the air with its bracing scent,” he said.

德鲁士说,不一定要放花。他记得在长岛的一座校园里,耐寒笔挺的迷迭香组成了一排低矮的“树篱”,倒向用砖砌成的小路。“想象一下,走过时身体轻轻蹭到这些常青草本植物边上,让空气充满了令人心旷神怡的芬芳,”他说。

Plan for a succession of smells. Don’t line the whole walk with lilacs, yielding a single scent-filled moment, but instead plant a staggered palette that mixes shrubs, down to perennials, bulbs and annuals.

要规划一连串的气味。不要在整条走道旁种满丁香花,这样只能获得单一的香气。种植的植物应该像色彩交错的调色盘,混合灌木、多年生植物、球茎和一年生植物。

“I have dwarf late-winter viburnums with their clove-scented flowers in March and April,” Mr. Druse said. “Then fragrant peonies and bearded iris. Next come the roses. In summer, the rich aroma of regal lilies intensifies in the evening.”

“我在冬末种上了低矮的荚蒾属植物,它们会在3月和4月开花,散发出丁香的芬芳,”德鲁士说。“之后就种植芳香的牡丹和有须鸢尾。接下来就种玫瑰。到了夏天,岷江百合馥郁的香气会在傍晚时变得更浓。”

The lilies lean toward the light, he noted, so plant them on the darker side of the path. The same holds for daylilies (Hemerocallis), whose flared flowers Mr. Druse describes as having “a sweet and lightly fruity or citrus scent.”

他指出,百合花向光生长,所以应该将花种在路径旁更暗的一边。忘忧草(萱草)也是向光的,德鲁士说这些喇叭状的花朵“气味香甜,带轻微的果香或柑橘香”。

There can also be fragrance underfoot, with creeping thymes in a sunny, well-drained place.

将百里香种在阳光充足、排水良好的地方,可以让脚下的地面也散发出香气。

Try Night-Scented Plants

试试种植夜香植物

If you sit outside in the evening, night-scented plants offer a way to connect with the garden through a sense of smell after dark.

如果你会在晚上到户外坐一坐,那么夜香植物能让你在天黑后通过气味与花园交流。

Many of the most fragrant plants bloom at night, leading the early 20th-century garden writer Louise Beebe Wilder to call them “the vesper flowers.” They do it to attract night-flying pollinators like moths or even bats.

许多香气最浓的植物会在晚上开花。20世纪初期的园艺作家露易丝·比伯·怀尔德(Louise Beebe Wilder)将它们称为“黄昏花”。它们在夜晚开花是为了吸引夜晚飞行的传粉媒介,比如飞蛾甚至蝙蝠。

Open the Windows

打开窗户

纽约时报双语版-“隐形花园”:探索植物香气的世界

在肯·德鲁士位于新泽西州的花园里,精心摆放在休息区旁的常夏石竹和康乃馨,它们都属于石竹属,散发出类似丁香的香味。
Ken Druse

Bringing the outdoors inside is not just about creating views of the landscape, but letting in aromas, as well.

要将外面的世界带到室内,不仅要创造出户外景观,也要将香气带进来。

To enjoy spring’s lilacs from an upstairs bedroom, Mr. Druse said, select a cultivar that has some height: “Not a dwarf Korean lilac, but one like Syringa President Lincoln, long and leggy like its namesake, or the later-blooming Japanese tree lilac.” The latter, Syringa reticulata, has frothy, cream-colored June flowers with a honey scent; the former are Wedgwood blue.

德鲁士说,要想在楼上卧室内欣赏到春天的丁香花,就要选择有点高度的品种:“不能选择矮种韩国丁香,要选树茎和名字一样长的欧丁香‘林肯总统’,或者开花较晚的日本丁香树。”后者是暴马丁香,米色的花朵会在6月开放,散发出蜂蜜般的香气;前者的花朵则是韦奇伍德瓷蓝色。

Vines are another way to move fragrance upward, but they need trellises or stainless-steel cables to climb on.

要想让香气向上传,也可以种植藤本植物,但它们需要借助棚架或不锈钢缆绳才能攀援向上。

Mr. Druse grows Clematis Betty Corning, which blooms for weeks, with bell-shaped blossoms “that smell like lavender flowers and are the same color,” he said.

德鲁士种了“贝蒂康宁”铁线莲,这种花的花期有数周,花朵呈钟形,“闻起来像薰衣草,颜色也一样,”他说。

Cold-hardy wisteria is also very fragrant, dominated by a honey aroma, “but as many gardeners know,” he said, “this plant is probably too powerfully aggressive for planting without a very sturdy trellis.”

耐寒的紫藤也有馥郁的香气,以蜂蜜的香气为主。“但正如许多花匠所知,”他说,“要是没有非常牢固的棚架,这种植物可能会长得过于野蛮。”

In places with gentle winters, Zones 7 and warmer, Mr. Druse said, “true jasmines and their impostors would be obvious candidates.” Possibilities include winter jasmine (Jasminum polyanthum), star jasmine (Trachelospermum jasminoides, in Zone 8) and Carolina Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens).

在冬天气候较温和的地方,包括第七区和更温暖的区域,德鲁士说:“真正的茉莉花和伪茉莉是显而易见的选择。”可以种植的有迎春花(多花素馨)、星形茉莉(络石,在第八区)以及卡罗来纳茉莉(金钩吻)。

Create a Patch of Touchable Fragrance

创造一片可触摸的香味

Many gardeners grow culinary herbs, some of which — the mints and rosemary, for instance — offer the extra delight of scent when brushed against. A group of pots positioned within reach, somewhere you pass many times a day, is an ideal way to incorporate such touch-me plants, even where there is no garden space.

许多园丁会种植烹调用的草本植物,例如薄荷和迷迭香,与这些植物擦身而过时会令它们散发出额外的芳香。即使在没有花园空间,也可以拥有这种可触碰的植物。最理想的办法是在一天会路过数次的地方种上几盆,摆在伸手可及的位置。

Mr. Druse makes room, front and center, for some herbal-scented plants aren’t intended for the kitchen — like patchouli, anise hyssop (Agastache) and bee balm (Monarda).

德鲁士在最显眼的地方腾出空间,摆放一些草本香味的非烹调用植物,比如广藿香、茴藿香及管蜂香草(美国薄荷)。

The pelargoniums, or scented geraniums, were his gateway to fragrance. “Scented geraniums helped get me hooked on gardening as a teenager,” he said. As with many of his favorites, their leaves have to be rubbed to release the aromatic oils, which mimic sharp lemon, rose, peppermint, nutmeg and even coconut.

天竺葵,即香味天竺葵,为他开启了芳香世界的大门。“十几岁时,是香味天竺葵让我开始对园艺着迷,”他说。这些花和许多深得他喜爱的植物一样,要摩擦它们的叶子才能释放出带香气的油,香气中带有酸柠檬、玫瑰、薄荷、肉豆蔻,甚至椰子的味道。

Choose Houseplants for Their Scent

根据香味选择室内植物

In Mr. Druse’s New Jersey sunroom and throughout his house, a collection of tender houseplants emphasizes fragrance. Many of them migrate outdoors during the warmer months, where they sit in the gentle shade of a crab apple and dogwood.

德鲁士在新泽西州的日光室和整间屋子中摆放了许多不抗寒的室内植物,香气浓郁。在温暖的月份中,许多植物都会被移到室外,放置在海棠和山茱萸的树荫下。

“That’s where my hoyas in hanging baskets and Arabian jasmine, Jasminum sambac, spend the summer,” he said. But his potted lemons and limes, which bloom from February to June, “want more sun, so they vacation on the sunny edge of the shadows.”

“那是吊篮里的球兰、阿拉伯茉莉花和茉莉花在夏天待的地方,”他说。但种在花盆里的柠檬和青柠的花期是2月到6月,它们“渴望更多阳光,所以它们会在阴影下阳光更加充足的边缘度假。”

Must-Have Fragrant Plants

必备的芬芳植物

Mr. Druse’s list is long: More than a hundred options for various climates are included in “The Scentual Garden.”

德鲁士的列表很长:《气味花园》里罗列了不同气候下可种植的植物,有逾一百种选择。

But if he was forced to pare down the list? “I couldn’t be without heliotrope, cottage pinks, licorice sweet flag, my beloved heirloom rose, lemon balm, tuberose and fruity cut freesias from the grocery,” he said.

但如果必须缩减名单呢?“一定要有天芥菜、常夏石竹、甘草,还有我钟爱的传家宝玫瑰、香蜂草、晚香玉,以及杂货店里买来的剪好的小苍兰,带着果香,”他说。

Then he remembered one special treasure: “Who knew I could grow tropical allspice — Pimenta dioica — with its leathery, evergreen leaves that smell, well, like allspice in the house over winter?”

他随后想起了一种特别的宝藏:“谁能想到我在冬天能在家种上热带多香果呢?它粗糙的常青叶闻起来,嗯,就像是多香果味道。”