Why Asia’s New Coronavirus Controls Should Worry the World

亚洲各地严防病例“倒灌”,全球解封恐遥遥无期

纽约时报双语版-亚洲各地严防病例“倒灌”,全球解封恐遥遥无期

周一,泰国普吉岛的移民官员帮助滞留在当地的游客延长签证期限。
Adam Dean for The New York Times

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In China, international flights have been cut back so severely that Chinese students abroad wonder when they will be able to get home. In Singapore, recently returned citizens must share their phones’ location data with the authorities each day to prove they are sticking to government-ordered quarantines.

在中国,国际航班已被大幅削减,以至于国外的留学生不知道何时才能回家。在新加坡,最近回国的国民必须每天与当局共享手机的位置数据,以证明他们遵守了政府下达的隔离规定。

In Taiwan, a man who had traveled to Southeast Asia was fined $33,000 for sneaking out to a club when he was supposed to be on lockdown in his home. In Hong Kong, a 13-year-old girl, who was spotted out at a restaurant wearing a tracking bracelet to monitor those in quarantine, was followed, filmed and subsequently shamed online.

在台湾,一个有东南亚旅行史的男子本应在家隔离,却偷偷溜到一家俱乐部,因而被罚款3.3万美元。在香港,一名13岁女孩戴着用于监视隔离人员的跟踪环去了一家餐厅,她被尾随、录像,随后在网上被羞辱。

Across Asia, countries and cities that seemed to have brought the coronavirus epidemic under control are suddenly tightening their borders and imposing stricter containment measures, fearful about a wave of new infections imported from elsewhere.

在整个亚洲,由于担心来自别处的新一轮感染。似乎已经控制住冠状病毒传播的国家和城市突然收紧边界,并采取更严格的遏制措施。

The moves portend a worrisome sign for the United States, Europe and the rest of the world still battling a surging outbreak: Any country’s success with containment could be tenuous, and the world could remain on a kind of indefinite lockdown.

对于美国、欧洲和世界其他仍在与疫情作斗争的地区来说,这些举动是一个令人担忧的信号:任何国家对病毒的成功遏制都可能是微薄的,世界可能会处于无限期的封锁中。

Even when the number of new cases starts to fall, travel barriers and bans in many places may persist until a vaccine or treatment is found. The risk otherwise is that the infection could be reintroduced inside their borders, especially given the prevalence of asymptomatic people who might unknowingly carry the virus with them.

即使新病例的数量开始下降,许多地方的旅行障碍和禁令也可能持续存在,直到研究出疫苗或治疗方法。否则就会面临感染可能重新引入境内的风险,特别是考虑到普遍存在的无症状人群,他们可能在不知不觉中携带病毒。

纽约时报双语版-亚洲各地严防病例“倒灌”,全球解封恐遥遥无期

2月,韩国仁川国际机场的检疫站。
Lam Yik Fei for The New York Times

Following a recent uptick in cases tied to international travelers, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan barred foreigners from entering altogether in recent days. Japan has barred visitors from most of Europe, and is considering denying entry to travelers from countries including the United States. South Korea imposed stricter controls, requiring incoming foreigners to quarantine in government facilities for 14 days upon arrival.

在最近与国际旅客有关的病例增加之后,近期,中国、香港、新加坡和台湾完全禁止了外国人入境。日本禁止来自欧洲大部分地区的旅客,并正在考虑拒绝包括美国在内的国家的旅客入境。韩国实施了更严格的控制,要求入境的外国人抵达后必须在政府设施中隔离14天。

“Countries have really been struggling to implement their own domestic solutions, and domestic solutions are insufficient for a transnational global health problem,” said Kristi Govella, an assistant professor of Asian studies at the University of Hawaii, Manoa.

夏威夷大学马诺阿主校(University of Hawaii, Manoa)亚洲研究助理教授克里斯蒂·戈维拉(Kristi Govella)说:“各国实际上一直在奋力实施自己的国内解决方案,而那不足以解决跨国性全球卫生问题。”

“Even countries that have been relatively successful in managing the pandemic are only as safe as the weakest links in the system,” she said, adding that in the absence of cooperation among countries, “closing borders is one of the ways that individual governments can control the situation.”

她说:“即使在控制疫情方面相对成功的国家,其安全状况也取决于系统中最薄弱的环节,”她还说,在国家之间缺乏合作的情况下,“封闭边界是各国政府能采取的控制局势方式之一。”

The virus, which emerged in Asia and spread to the West, is at risk of ricocheting back. Citizens who were worried about outbreaks in Europe and the United States rushed home after finding themselves in the new epicenters of the pandemic.

这种病毒在亚洲出现并传播到西方,现在有倒灌的危险。身在欧洲和美国的国民发现自己所在的国家成了新的疫情中心,忧虑之下仓促回国。

Almost immediately, countries and cities in Asia started seeing a rise in new cases, often detecting infected passengers at airports as they passed through health screenings. Hong Kong, which had been reporting new daily cases in the single digits, suddenly saw new cases spike as high as 65 in one day. In Japan, where infections have remained relatively controlled, cases started to rise last month in Tokyo as travelers returned from overseas.

几乎是一瞬间,亚洲的国家和城市开始出现病例新增的情况,并经常在机场通过健康检查发现被感染的乘客。香港的新增病例数一直保持在个位数,但在一天内突然飙升至65例。在日本,感染相对是受到控制的,但从上个月开始海外公民回国后病例开始增加。

To try to stem the influx of infections, governments clamped down on their borders.

为了阻止感染的涌入,政府对边境采取了严厉措施。

South Korea, which has been praised globally for flattening the curve quickly after an early explosive peak in infections, initially required travelers from some countries to quarantine. This week it expanded the list to cover the entire world.

韩国最初要求来自某些国家的旅客进行隔离。该国因在感染暴增达到高峰后迅速压平曲线而受到全球赞誉。本周,它将受限国家范围扩展至全世界。

纽约时报双语版-亚洲各地严防病例“倒灌”,全球解封恐遥遥无期

日本大阪的关西国际机场周二几乎空无一人。日本已经禁止大部分欧洲国家的旅行者入境,并考虑拒绝来自美国的旅行者入境。
Hiroko Masuike/The New York Times

Japan started by having travelers quarantine, but now bars travelers from most of Europe outright. It is discussing more bans, including for travelers from the United States.

日本最初对旅客进行隔离,但现在却完全禁止了欧洲大部分地区的旅客进入。他们还在讨论更多的禁令,包括针对美国旅客。

China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan have simply shut their borders to virtually all foreigners.

中国、香港、新加坡和台湾几乎完全禁止所有外国人进入边境。

“We believe that under the current situation of the epidemic, minimizing unnecessary entry and exit activities is a responsible and necessary measure to effectively protect the life, safety and physical health of all Chinese and foreign personnel,” said Liu Haitao, director-general for border control and management of the National Immigration Administration in China.

中国国家移民管理局边防检查管理司司长刘海涛说:“在当前的疫情下,尽量减少不必要的、非需要的出入境活动,对于有效保护包括被限制入境在内的所有中外人员的生命安全和身体健康,是负责任和必要的措施。”

Even some residents are having a hard time getting home. On mainland China, where leaders are keen to declare the worst of the outbreak that started there over, the new border controls have forced most foreign airlines to cut back to one flight a week. Ticket prices have skyrocketed and bookings are constantly canceled.

甚至一些本国居民也很难回家。在中国大陆,领导人急于宣布发源于那里的疫情已经度过了最严重的时期,新的边境管制迫使多数外国航空公司将航班减少至每周一班。机票价格飞涨,预订不断被取消。

Alex Fei, a Chinese student at a university in Canada, has struggled to get back. His flights have been canceled twice — once after Hong Kong banned transfers through the hub, and another time when the airline suspended a direct flight from Vancouver to Shanghai.

亚历克斯·费(Alex Fei)是加拿大一所大学的中国留学生。他的航班已经两次被取消——一次是在香港禁止通过该地转机之后,另一次是在航空公司暂停从温哥华飞往上海的直飞航班之后。

Mr. Fei said he might have no choice but to remain in Canada. “Overseas students’ hands are tied for now,” he said.

亚历克斯·费说,他可能别无选择,只能留在加拿大。“现在海外学生都束手无策,”他说。

纽约时报双语版-亚洲各地严防病例“倒灌”,全球解封恐遥遥无期

周二,泰国当局在普吉岛一个检查站的洗消帐篷里向旅客喷洒消毒剂。
Adam Dean for The New York Times

Citizens who do return to Asia are often put under strict surveillance as they serve out their time in quarantine. In some cases governments are using the tools of criminal justice to enforce them.

返回亚洲的国民在隔离期间通常会受到严格的监视。在某些情况下,政府在利用刑事司法手段来执行这些措施。

Hong Kong, a semiautonomous Chinese city, initially managed to contain its early coronavirus outbreak with swift measures like the closing of schools and government offices and restrictions on travelers from mainland China.

半自治的中国城市香港最初通过迅速关闭学校和政府机构、限制来自中国大陆的旅客入境等措施,成功控制了早期的冠状病毒疫情。

But as students and expatriates rushed back from Europe and the United States in March, officials warned that a new wave of imported cases was beginning to strain hospitals. Hong Kong’s leader, Carrie Lam, barred all nonresidents on March 19, and returning residents are now tested upon arrival.

但是,随着学生和外籍人士3月纷纷从欧洲和美国返回,官员们警告说,新一轮的输入性病例开始令医院陷入紧张。香港特别行政区行政长官林郑月娥于3月19日禁止所有非香港居民入境,回香港的居民现在一抵达就要接受检查。

During a 14-day quarantine at home, they wear tracking bracelets, and their movements are monitored by a smartphone app. Ms. Lam said that more than 200,000 people were currently being quarantined at home.

在为期14天的隔离期间,他们戴着跟踪环,去向受到一款智能手机应用的监控。林郑月娥说,目前有20多万人在家中隔离。

Technology is a key tool for enforcing quarantines. In China, returnees spend 14 days in government-assigned hotels and send their temperatures daily to neighborhood committees on WeChat, a messaging service. In Taiwan, the government uses location tracking on mobile phones and adds some old-fashioned police shoe leather; officers visit people at home if they leave or turn off their phones.

技术是实施隔离的关键工具。在中国,海外归来者要在政府指定的酒店里待上14天,每天通过信息服务微信向居委会报告体温。在台湾,政府使用手机定位,辅以一些老式的警务行动;如果有人离开或关掉手机,警察就会去拜访他们。

Filia Lim, 50, said the quarantine measures in Singapore were a “headache” because she normally travels extensively for her job in human resources. But she said she was “thankful” that Singapore was monitoring returnees so closely.

现年50岁的菲利亚·林(Filia Lim)说,新加坡的隔离措施让她“头疼”,因为她在人力资源部门工作,一般会经常出差。但她表示,她“感谢”新加坡如此密切地监控回国人员。

纽约时报双语版-亚洲各地严防病例“倒灌”,全球解封恐遥遥无期

周二,工作人员在中国武汉一家隔离酒店收集样本进行测试。
Ng Han Guan/Associated Press

“The virus spread mostly because people didn’t realize they have the symptoms, or for some they blatantly ignored those symptoms and they interacted with a lot of people despite advice by government to self-isolate themselves,” she said.

“病毒传播的主要原因是人们没有意识到自己有症状,还有一些人公然无视自己的症状,不顾政府建议的自我隔离,和许多人接触,”她说。

Punishment for breaking the rules of quarantine can be stiff. A 53-year-old Singaporean who breached the order had his passport invalidated, the immigration authorities said Sunday.

违反隔离规定的处罚是严厉的。新加坡移民当局周日说,一名53岁的新加坡人违反了这一命令,导致其护照被作废。

Japan officially says those who break quarantine can be imprisoned for up to six months or fined as much as 500,000 yen, about $4,600.

日本官方表示,违反隔离令的人可能被判处最长六个月的监禁,或最高50万日元(约合4600美元)的罚款。

But the Japanese government relies on trust that those in quarantine stay cloistered. Upon returning from countries on the banned list, residents sign a pledge stating that they will remain in one place for 14 days and stay off public transit. If they go out for food, they are told to wear a mask and “be quick.”

但日本政府信任被隔离者会保持隔绝状态。当地居民从黑名单上的国家返回后,会签署一份保证书,声明他们将在一个地方停留14天,并远离公共交通工具。如果他们出去吃饭,他们被告知要戴上口罩,而且要“动作快”。

South Korea has yet to bar entrants from anywhere but the Hubei region of China. Critics say that simply quarantining foreigners may inadvertently put more stress on the medical system.

韩国还没有禁止除来自中国湖北以外地区的人入境。批评人士说,简单地隔离外国人可能会在无意中给医疗系统带来更多压力。

“Some say that there are people abroad who think they should come to Korea to be tested and treated,” said Dr. Park Jong-hyuk, a family medicine specialist and spokesman for the Korean Medical Association.

“有人说,有些外国人会觉得他们应该到韩国来接受检测和治疗,”韩国医学会(Korean Medical Association)发言人、家庭医生朴钟赫(Park Jong-hyuk,音)说。

Dr. Park has called for a total entry ban on foreigners.

朴钟赫呼吁全面禁止外国人入境。

纽约时报双语版-亚洲各地严防病例“倒灌”,全球解封恐遥遥无期

本月,新加坡滨海湾。近期返回的居民必须每天向当局共享手机的位置数据,以证明他们遵守隔离规定。
Ore Huiying for The New York Times

“It is time to make efforts to protect one another on a global level by practicing international social distancing,” he said.

“现在是时候在全球范围内通过保持国际社交距离来努力保护彼此了,”他说。

In the immediate term, when governments are still scrambling to protect their citizens, such measures make sense, experts say. But the longer it goes on, the more likely it could do sustained damage to the global economy and the collective psyche.

专家说,从短期来看,当政府还在忙于保护本国公民时,这些措施是有意义的。但它持续的时间越长,就越有可能对全球经济和总体心态造成持续的损害。

“Although the first priority should be on definitely trying to control the virus,” said Karen Eggleston, director of the Asia health policy program at the Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center at Stanford University, “one has to think about those very large costs, and as the crisis is prolonged, those costs can definitely mount.”

“虽然绝对的第一要务应该是试图控制病毒,”斯坦福大学肖伦斯坦亚太研究中心(Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center at Stanford University)亚洲卫生政策项目主任凯伦·艾格莱斯顿(Karen Eggleston)说。“但人们必须考虑这些非常大的成本,随着危机延长,这样的成本肯定会增加。”

Sean Sierra, 30, a petty officer in the United States Navy stationed at Yokosuka Naval Base in Japan, said he did not see an end in sight. After a recent posting to a ship based in Singapore, he was required to quarantine at home in Japan for 14 days when he returned.

30岁的肖恩·塞拉(Sean Sierra)是驻扎在日本横须贺海军基地的美国海军士官,他说自己看不到疫情结束的迹象。他最近被派到新加坡的一艘船上,回基地后被要求在日本的家中隔离14天。

Although he has completed his stint in isolation, the entire base is now sheltering in place. “We’re going to be stuck here for a bit,” said Petty Officer Sierra. He said that his mother-in-law was scheduled to visit in two weeks but that the quarantine “puts a damper on any plans.”

尽管他已经完成了规定的隔离期,但整个基地都在原地避难。“我们会被困在这里一段时间,”塞拉说,他的岳母计划两周后来访,但隔离“对任何计划来说都是打击”。