How a Premier U.S. Drug Company Became a Virus ‘Super Spreader’



Cody O’Loughlin for The New York Times

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BOSTON — On the first Monday in March, Michel Vounatsos, chief executive of the drug company Biogen, appeared in good spirits. The company’s new Alzheimer’s drug was showing promise after years of setbacks. Revenues had never been higher.

波士顿——3月的第一个周一,制药公司百健(Biogen)的首席执行官冯纳玺(Michel Vounatsos)看上去特别有精神。公司治疗阿尔茨海默症的新药在经历了多年挫折后显露出了希望。公司的收入从来没有这么高过。

Onstage at an elite health care conference in Boston, Mr. Vounatsos touted the drug’s “remarkable journey.” Asked if the coronavirus that was ravaging China would disrupt supply chains and upend the company’s big plans, Mr. Vounatsos said no.


“So far, so good,” he said.


But even as he spoke, the virus was already silently spreading among Biogen’s senior executives, who did not know they had been infected days earlier at the company’s annual leadership meeting.


Biogen employees, most feeling healthy, boarded planes full of passengers. They drove home to their families. And they carried the virus to at least six states, the District of Columbia and three countries, outstripping the ability of local public health officials to trace the spread.


The Biogen meeting was one of the earliest examples in the U.S. of what epidemiologists call “superspreading events” of Covid-19, where a small gathering of people leads to a huge number of infections. Unlike the most infamous clusters of cases stemming from a nursing home outside Seattle or a 40th birthday party in Connecticut, the Biogen cluster happened at a meeting of top health care professionals whose job it was to fight disease, not spread it.


“The smartest people in health care and drug development — and they were completely oblivious to the biggest thing that was about to shatter their world,” said John Carroll, editor of Endpoints News, which covers the biotech industry.

“他们是医疗保健和药物开发领域最聪明的人,他们对即将打破他们世界的最大事件完全没有意识,”报道生物技术行业的专业媒体端点新闻(Endpoints News)的编辑约翰·卡罗尔(John Carroll)说。

The official count of those sickened— 99, including employees and their contacts, according to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health — includes only those who live in that state. The true number across the United States is certainly higher. The first two cases in Indiana were Biogen executives. So was the first known case in Tennessee, and six of the earliest cases in North Carolina.


All the people outside Massachusetts that The New York Times has connected to the cluster have recovered. But it’s impossible to say for certain whether anyone became gravely ill or died from the spread out of the conference.


In hindsight, many people have criticized Biogen’s decision to continue with its leadership meeting in late February, which was attended by vice presidents from European countries already hit by the virus. Others in the industry fault Biogen for being too tight-lipped about the outbreak.


At least two of the company’s senior executives have tested positive. Citing privacy concerns, the company has declined to name them, even as other chief executives in biotech have disclosed their positive tests.


Responding to questions from The New York Times, Mr. Vounatsos refused to say even whether he had been tested for Covid-19.


“He is completely focused on employee safety, supplying medicines to patients, and leading the company,” said a Biogen spokesman, David Caouette. “This takes precedence over his personal health status.”

“他把全部精力都放在员工安全、为病人提供药物,以及领导公司上,”百健发言人戴维·考埃特(David Caouette)说。“这些工作比他的个人健康状况更重要。”

The company has defended its handling of the leadership meeting and its aftermath, saying it made the best decisions it could with the information available at the time.


“For a company whose mission is to save lives, it was very difficult to see our colleagues and community directly affected by this disease,” Mr. Vounatsos said in his first public comments about what happened at Biogen. “We would never have knowingly put anyone at risk.”


Founded in 1978 and based near Boston, Biogen helped pioneer the biotechnology industry, specializing in multiple sclerosis drugs. The company is best known now for its work on a promising treatment for Alzheimer’s.


Its experimental drug was seen as a potential holy grail — until the company announced about a year ago that the drug appeared to be a failure in large-scale trials. Patients were devastated. The company’s stock nose-dived.


But last fall, in a stunning reversal, Biogen announced that further analysis of the data suggested the drug actually worked at higher doses. Mr. Vounatsos said the company planned to seek approval from the Food and Drug Administration “as soon as possible.” The stock soared; the company pulled in record annual revenues of about $14.4 billion.


By the time of Biogen’s annual leadership meeting on Feb. 26 and 27, spirits were high. So was the pressure to deliver.


Although some other companies canceled international meetings around that time, Biogen never discussed doing so. The outbreak was raging in China but had not yet been declared a worldwide pandemic. As of Feb. 21, the Friday before the meeting, the United States had only 30 confirmed cases, according to data compiled by The Times. Biogen executives in Germany, Switzerland and Italy — where there were just 20 known cases — packed their bags.


On the first night, about 175 executives gathered for a buffet dinner and cocktails at the Marriott Long Wharf overlooking Boston Harbor. Colleagues who hadn’t seen each other in a year shook hands and vied for face time with bosses. Europeans gave customary kisses on both cheeks.

会议第一天的晚上,大约175名高管在俯瞰波士顿港的龙码头万豪酒店(Marriott Long Wharf)参加了自助晚餐和鸡尾酒聚会。已一年没见面的同事们互相握手,争着与上司见面。欧洲人则按照习惯互相亲吻两颊。

“It’s unfortunately the perfect breeding ground for a virus,” said one former vice president, who spoke on condition of anonymity because of his ties to Biogen.


Two days later, the senior executives returned to their offices. One drove to a manufacturing center in North Carolina. Others flew back to Europe.


Peter Bergethon, the head of digital and quantitative medicine at Biogen, went home to his wife, an infectious-disease doctor.

百健的数字与定量医学主管彼得·伯杰桑(Peter Bergethon)回到妻子身边,她是一名传染病医生。

A Biogen vice president in the Alzheimer’s franchise and her husband attended a party the following Saturday night at a friend’s home in Princeton, N.J., with about 45 other people.


They celebrated a holiday in the Greek Orthodox calendar, the end of the Carnival season, with special sweets and traditional dances that involved holding hands in a circle. Although celebrations in Greece had been canceled, the party in New Jersey went forward, since White House officials had just pronounced the virus in the United States to be under control.


That night, Allana Taranto, a photographer who covered the leadership meeting for Biogen, celebrated her 42nd birthday with her boyfriend and another couple.

那天晚上,在百健领导力会议上担任摄影师的阿拉娜·塔兰托(Allana Taranto)与男友和另一对夫妇一起庆祝了自己42岁的生日。

Over that weekend, though, some people in the company had already started feeling sick.


Jie Li, a 37-year-old biostatistician who worked on the Alzheimer’s drug team, had chills, a cough and aches. She was too junior to attend the company’s leadership conference, but her boss went, and showed up at the office afterward.


On March 2, the following Monday, the company’s chief medical officer sent an email informing everyone who attended the leadership meeting that some people had fallen ill and telling them to contact a health care provider if they felt sick.


“We moved quickly,” Mr. Caouette said.


Still, that same day, the company’s four top executives attended a huge health care conference hosted by the investment firm Cowen. At another Marriott in Boston, they held meetings in hotel rooms with potential investors. Another attendee who met some of the same investors said he heard that members of the Biogen team looked sick.


At the conference, concern about the coronavirus mounted as word spread that some companies, including Vertex and Seattle Genetics, had canceled their appearances. By Tuesday, the second day of the conference, many attendees had stopped shaking hands.

包括弗特克斯(Vertex)和西雅图遗传学公司(Seattle Genetics)在内的几家公司决定退出会议,随着消息的传开,会上人们对新冠病毒的担忧也在增长。到会议的第二天,也就是周,许多与会者已不再与他人握手。

Later, investors were informed that two of the four Biogen executives at the conference tested positive for the virus.


In defense of his company’s decision to attend the event, Mr. Vounatsos said, “When we learned a number of our colleagues were ill, we did not know the cause was Covid-19.”


That Tuesday, Biogen contacted the Massachusetts Department of Public Health and reported that about 50 employees in the Boston area and overseas had flulike symptoms. Biogen employees began showing up at the emergency room of Massachusetts General Hospital, demanding tests. They were told their cases didn’t satisfy the testing criteria at the time, since none had traveled to a hot spot or had known exposure to someone who had tested positive for Covid-19.

就在那个周二,百健与马萨诸塞州公共卫生部联系,将大约有50名波士顿地区和海外的员工出现了类似流感症状的情况通报给了后者。百健员工开始出现在马萨诸塞州总医院(Massachusetts General Hospital)的急诊室,要求做新冠病毒检测。他们被告知,他们不符合当时的检测标准,因为没去过热点地区,也没有接触过新冠病毒检测呈阳性的人。

The next day, confirmation of the worst arrived. Two Biogen executives who had returned home to Germany and Switzerland, where tests were more widely available, had tested positive.


On Thursday, the company held a call with its staff and shared the news. All office-based employees were directed to work from home.


Yet on that same day, a Biogen executive visited the Washington office of Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, or PhRMA, the industry’s top lobbying group. Soon after, that executive tested positive, prompting the group to close its headquarters for deep cleaning.

然而,就在同一天,百健的一名高管拜访了美国药物研究机构和制药厂商协会(Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America)的华盛顿办公室,该协会是药品行业的主要游说机构。不久后,这名百健高管的病毒检测结果呈阳性,导致协会关闭总部,对办公室进行消杀。

The next few weeks turned into a blur of Biogen employees leaving casseroles on one another’s doorsteps and trading news about who had fallen ill.


Dr. Bergethon infected his wife, the infectious-disease specialist. While their symptoms were manageable, the scariest part was the uncertainty, Dr. Bergethon recalled recently at a virtual event hosted by the University of Rochester.

伯杰桑把病毒传染给了身为传染病专家的妻子。尽管他们的症状都不太严重,但最可怕的是这个病的不确定性,伯杰桑在罗切斯特大学(University of Rochester)最近举办的一个网上活动中回忆道。

“We didn’t know we were going to recover,” he said. “We didn’t know what was coming next.”


Ms. Taranto, the photographer who had been at Biogen’s leadership conference, unknowingly gave the illness to a friend at her birthday dinner. She had felt healthy at the time.


Of the four dozen people who attended the party in New Jersey, at least 15 later tested positive, according to public health authorities.


A Biogen executive, Chris Baumgartner, became the first Covid case in Tennessee. “I was patient zero,” he wrote on Facebook. He added: “Imagine having to confront a virus so feared, it now has the entire world on the brink of mass hysteria.”

百健高管克里斯·鲍姆加特纳(Chris Baumgartner)成了田纳西州的第一个新冠病毒病例。“我是‘零号病人’,”他在Facebook上写道。他还说:“想象一下不得不面对这样一种如此令人恐惧的病毒吧,它已让整个世界处于群体性歇斯底里的边缘。”

The earliest cases in Indiana and North Carolina were tied to the company. One Biogen employee even carried the virus back to China.


After falling ill with flu-like symptoms, Ms. Li called an ambulance and was given a coronavirus test, according to a public health official in Belmont, the upscale Boston suburb where she lived. But before she received the results, she booked a flight to Beijing, boarding a plane with her husband and son, leaving behind their house, a white BMW and other trappings of the life they had built in the United States over 15 years.


“They must have been desperate,” said Dr. William Q. Meeker, a statistics professor at Iowa State University who had worked closely with Ms. Li’s husband, Yili Hong, also a statistician. The couple worried most about their 2-year-old, who would be far from relatives if they both fell ill, according to a former graduate school classmate.

“他们一定很绝望,”艾奥瓦州立大学(Iowa State University)统计学教授威廉·Q·米克尔(William Q. Meeker)博士说,米克尔曾与黎洁的丈夫洪义理(音)有密切的工作关系。据他们以前的一名研究生院同学说,这对夫妇最担心的是他们两岁大的孩子,如果他们都生病的话,孩子在附近没有亲戚能照顾他。

Ms. Li took medicine to conceal her symptoms, and revealed her health condition to flight attendants on board the flight, Air China and Beijing disease control officials said last month.


After she landed in China, authorities placed her under investigation for “obstructing the prevention of infectious diseases,” a crime that reportedly carries a sentence of up to seven years in prison.


In Beijing, the couple suffered from high fevers and lung infections and were hospitalized, Dr. Meeker said. He recently received an email from Mr. Hong that said they were recuperating, but that their lives “will be different in the future.”


It appears that all of Biogen’s employees who fell ill have recovered. Aside from Ms. Li, who was fired, all have returned to work, Mr. Caouette said.


Biogen has since joined the fight against the virus. The company donated $10 million to expand access to testing and to provide emergency food and protective gear for hospital workers.


Company officials said its struggle against the pandemic is just beginning: Biogen, for instance, has also entered into talks with Vir Technology about manufacturing a potential treatment for Covid-19, another pharmaceutical holy grail that could make untold amounts of money.

公司的高层表示,它与大流行病的斗争才刚刚开始,并举例指出:百健正在与维尔生物科技公司(Vir Technology)谈判,讨论制造一种治疗新冠病毒疾病的潜在药物的事情。治疗新冠病毒疾病的药物也是人们都在努力追求的圣杯,能实现这个目标的公司将能挣到一笔大钱。