‘Hamilton’ Review: You Say You Want a Revolution

《汉密尔顿》剧评:你说你想要一场革命

纽约时报双语版-《汉密尔顿》剧评:你说你想要一场革命

林-曼努埃尔·米兰达(左)饰演亚历山大·汉密尔顿,小莱斯利·奥多姆(右)饰演亚伦·伯尔。
Disney

The opening scenes of the filmed version of the Broadway musical “Hamilton,” which starts streaming on Disney+ on Independence Day weekend, pull you back in time to two distinct periods. The people onstage, in their breeches and brass-buttoned coats, belong to the New York of 1776. That’s when a 19-year-old freshly arrived from the Caribbean — the “bastard, immigrant, son of a whore” who shares his name with the show — makes his move and takes his shot, joining up with a squad of anti-British revolutionaries and eventually finding his way to George Washington’s right hand and the front of the $10 bill.

百老汇音乐剧《汉密尔顿》(Hamilton)影像版于独立日周末在Disney+频道播放,最初的几场戏将把你拉回到两个不同的时期。台上那些穿着马裤和铜扣大衣的人属于1776年的纽约。那个时候,一个19岁少年刚从加勒比前来,这个“私生子、移民、妓女的儿子”正是本剧同名主人公,他行动起来,把握机会,和一群反英革命党人联手,最终成为乔治·华盛顿(George Washington)的亲信,以及10元美钞上的人物。

But this Hamilton, played with relentless energy and sly charm by Lin-Manuel Miranda, who wrote the music, book and lyrics, also belongs to the New York of 2016. Filmed (by the show’s director, Thomas Kail, and the cinematographer Declan Quinn) in front of a live audience at the Richard Rodgers Theater in June of that year, the movie, while not strictly speaking a documentary, is nonetheless a document of its moment. It evokes a swirl of ideas, debates, dreams and assumptions that can feel, in the present moment, as elusive as the intrigue and ideological sparring of the late 1700s.

然而这个汉密尔顿也属于2016年的纽约,饰演者林-曼努埃尔·米兰达(Lin-Manuel Miranda)充满无尽活力和狡黠魅力,同时也是该剧的词曲和同名书籍作者。这个影像版于当年6月在理查德·罗杰斯剧院现场演出时拍摄,导演为托马斯·凯尔(Thomas Kail),摄影师为德克兰·奎因(Declan Quinn)。虽然严格来说算不上纪录片,但影片的确是在记录当时的情景。它唤起了纷乱的思想、辩论、梦想和假设,在当下,它们就像18世纪末的阴谋和思想交锋一样难以捉摸。

“Hamilton,” which premiered at the Public Theater in early 2015 before moving to Broadway and then into every precinct of American popular culture, may be the supreme artistic expression of an Obama-era ideal of progressive, multicultural patriotism.

《汉密尔顿》于2015年初在公共剧院首演,之后搬到百老汇,然后进入到美国流行文化的各个领域。它可能是奥巴马时代进步、多元爱国主义理想的最高艺术表达。

Casting Black and Latino actors as the founding fathers and their allies — Daveed Diggs as Thomas Jefferson and the Marquis de Lafayette, Christopher Jackson as George Washington, and Leslie Odom Jr. as Hamilton’s mortal frenemy Aaron Burr — was much more than a gesture of inclusiveness. (Jonathan Groff channels the essential, irreducible whiteness of King George III.) The show’s argument, woven through songs that brilliantly synthesized hip-hop, show tunes and every flavor of pop, was that American history is an open book. Any of us should be able to write ourselves into it.

黑人和拉丁裔演员扮演开国元勋和他们的盟友——戴维德·迪格斯(Daveed Diggs)扮演托马斯·杰斐逊(Thomas Jefferson)和拉法叶侯爵(Marquis de Lafayette),克里斯托弗·杰克逊(Christopher Jackson)扮演乔治·华盛顿,小莱斯利·奥多姆(Leslie Odom Jr.)扮演汉密尔顿的死敌亚伦·伯尔(Aaron Burr)——这不仅仅是一种包容的姿态。(乔纳森·格罗夫[Jonathan Groff]将英王乔治三世根本的、难以磨灭的白人特质呈现了出来。)这部剧巧妙地融合了嘻哈音乐、音乐剧歌曲和各种风格的流行乐,向世人表示:美国历史是一本打开的书,我们每个人都应该有能力把自己写进去。

Alexander Hamilton, the first secretary of the Treasury and an architect of the American banking system, was Miranda’s chosen embodiment of this belief: an outsider with no money and scant connections who propelled himself into the center of the national narrative through sheer brains, talent and drive. Miranda shares some of his hero’s ambition and intelligence, and turns Hamilton into an avatar of modern American aspiration. Just like his country, he sings, he’s “young, scrappy and hungry.”

第一任财政部长、美国银行体系的设计师亚历山大·汉密尔顿,正是米兰达为这一信念选择的化身:一个身无分文、缺乏人脉的局外人,纯粹凭借头脑、才能和魄力,将自己推向了国家叙事的中心。米兰达和他的主人公有着同样的雄心和智慧,把汉密尔顿变成了现代美国人理想的化身。他唱道,就像他的国家一样,他“年轻、好斗、饥渴”。

The tale of his rise fuses individual striving and collective struggle. For all his sometimes comical self-regard (he has a pickup line about “my top-notch brain”), Hamilton doesn’t measure success just in personal terms. That’s Burr’s great shortcoming: He scrambles after power and prestige without taking a risk or committing himself to a principle. But Hamilton wants to make his mark by making a difference. Self-making and nation-building are aspects of a single project.

他崛起的故事融合了个人与集体的奋斗。尽管他的自尊心有时显得很滑稽(他有一句搭讪的台词是“我第一流的头脑”),然而汉密尔顿并不仅仅从个人角度来衡量成功。而这正是伯尔最大的缺点:他追逐权力和威望,却不肯承担风险,也不为任何原则献身。但汉密尔顿希望有所作为,以此留下自己的印记。自我成就和建设国家对他来说是一体两面的。

“Hamilton” is a brilliant feat of historical imagination, which isn’t the same as a history lesson. Miranda used Ron Chernow’s dad-lit doorstop the way Shakespeare drew on Holinshed’s Chronicles — as a treasure trove of character, anecdote and dramatic raw material. One of the marvels of the show is the way it brings long-dead, legend-shrouded people to vivid and sympathetic life. The close-ups and camera movements in this version enhance the charisma of the performers, adding a dimension of intimacy that compensates for the lost electricity of the live theatrical experience.

《汉密尔顿》是历史想象的辉煌成就,并不能等同为一趟历史课。米兰达像莎士比亚借鉴《霍林希德编年史》(Holinshed’s Chronicles)一样,运用罗恩·切尔诺(Ron Chernow)的“老爸文学”大部头巨著,作为人物、轶事和戏剧素材的宝库。这部剧的奇妙之处在于,它把那些早已死去、被传奇笼罩的人物活灵活现地展现出来,令人对他们产生同情。在这个版本中,特写镜头和摄像机运动增强了表演者的魅力,增加了一种亲密感,弥补了不能亲临现场看戏所失去的激情。

The glib, dandyish Jefferson is a perfect foil for Hamilton: his rival, his intellectual equal and his sometimes reluctant partner in the construction of a new political order. Though Hamilton hates it when Washington calls him son, the father of the country is also a warm, sometimes stern paternal presence in his protégé’s life. The duplicitous Burr may be the most Shakespearean figure in the pageant, a gifted man tormented and ultimately undone by his failure to make himself matter.

能言善辩、花花公子般的杰弗逊,是衬托汉密尔顿的最佳人选:他的对手,与他智力相当的人,他在构建新政治秩序过程中的一个有时不大情愿的合作者。尽管汉密尔顿不喜欢华盛顿称他为“孩子”,但在汉密尔顿的生活中,这位国父也充当着温暖中带点严厉的父亲形象。奸诈的伯尔可能是这幅画卷中最具莎士比亚色彩的人物——一个被自己的失败所折磨、最终走向毁灭的天才。

Not that public affairs are the only forces that move “Hamilton.” I haven’t forgotten the Schuyler sisters, who have some of the best numbers and who somewhat undermine the patriarchal, great-man tendencies inherent in this kind of undertaking. Miranda weaves the story of revolutionary ferment and the subsequent partisan battles of the early national era into a chronicle of courtship, marriage, friendship and adultery that has its own political implications. Angelica Schuyler (the magnificent Renée Elise Goldsberry), the oldest of the three sisters, is a freethinker and a feminist constrained by the narrowness of the options available to women of her time and class. Her sister Eliza (Phillipa Soo), who marries Alexander, is saved from being reduced to a passive, suffering figure by the emotional richness of her songs.

公共事务并非推动《汉密尔顿》前进的唯一力量。我没有忘记斯凯勒姐妹,她们拥有一些最精彩的曲目,在某种程度上削弱了这类事业之中固有的父权与伟大男人倾向。米兰达将酝酿革命的故事和随后的国家早期党派斗争编织进一部拥有自身政治含义的求爱、婚姻、友谊与通奸的编年史。安吉莉卡·斯凯勒(Angelica Schuyler,由蕾妮·伊莉斯·戈德斯伯里[Renée Elise Goldsberry]精彩出演)是三姐妹中最年长的一位,她是一位自由思想家和女权主义者,受制于所在时代和阶级的女性选择的狭隘性。她的妹妹伊丽莎(Eliza,菲利普帕·苏[Phillipa Soo]饰)嫁给了亚历山大,她的歌曲感情丰富,使她没有沦为一个消极、痛苦的形象。

Still, the personal and the political don’t entirely balance. “Can we get back to politics?” Jefferson demands after an especially somber episode in Hamilton’s family life, and it’s hard to keep from sharing his impatience. The biographical details are necessary to the structure and texture of the show, but it is fueled by cabinet debates and pamphlet wars, by high rhetoric and back-room dealing, by the glory and complexity of self-government.

然而,个人和政治并没有完全平衡。“我们能回到政治上来吗?”在汉密尔顿的家庭生活经历了一段特别阴郁的插曲后,杰斐逊这样要求,人们很难不去分享他的不耐烦。传记般的细节对于这部剧的结构和质感来说是必要的,然而为它赋予动力的是那些内阁辩论和传单大战、华丽的言辞和幕后交易,以及自治的荣耀与复杂。

Again: This isn’t a textbook. Liberties have been taken. Faults can be found. The problem of slavery isn’t ignored, but it has a way of slipping to the margins. Jefferson’s ownership of slaves is cited by Hamilton as a sign of bad faith (“your debts are paid because you don’t pay for labor”), but Washington’s doesn’t come up.

再说一遍:这不是教科书。里面有自己的发挥。可以找到错谬之处。蓄奴问题没有被忽视,但该剧设法让它滑向边缘。汉密尔顿认为杰斐逊拥有奴隶是有失诚实的表现(“你的债务得到偿还,这是因为你不为劳动支付工资”),但是华盛顿蓄奴的问题却没有出现。

“Hamilton” is motivated, above all, by a faith in the self-correcting potential of the American experiment, by the old and noble idea that a usable past — and therefore a more perfect future — can be fashioned from a record that bristles with violence, injustice and contradiction. The optimism of this vision, filtered through a sensibility as generous as Miranda’s, is inspiring.

最重要的是,激发了《汉密尔顿》的,是一种对美国实验自我修正潜力的信念,一种古老而高尚的理念:从一段充满暴力、不公正和矛盾的记录当中,可以塑造出一段有用的过去——以及一个更完美的未来。这一愿景的乐观主义,透过米兰达丰沛的情感表达出来,显得格外鼓舞人心。

It’s also heartbreaking. One lesson that the past few years should have taught — or reconfirmed — is that there aren’t any good old days. We can’t go back to 1789 or 2016 or any other year to escape from the failures that plague us now. This four-year-old performance of “Hamilton,” viewed without nostalgia, feels more vital, more challenging than ever.

这也同样令人心碎。过去几年带给我们,或者说再次确认的一个教训是,根本没有什么“过去的好日子”。我们不能回到1789年、2016年或任何其他年份,以此逃避当前困扰我们的失败。这部四年前上演的《汉密尔顿》,如果不带怀旧的眼光去看,会让人觉得比以往任何时候都显得更有活力、更有挑战性。

Its central questions — “Who lives, who dies, who tells your story?” — are staring us in the face. Its lyrics are an archive of encouragement and rebuke. Over the years, various verses have stuck in my head, but at the moment I can’t get past the parts of “One Last Time” that are taken, word for word, from Washington’s farewell address, ghostwritten by Hamilton. And I can’t escape tears when the outgoing president hymns “the sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the benign influence of good laws under a free government.”

它的核心问题——“谁活下来,谁将死去,谁来讲述你的故事?”——就摆在我们面前。它的歌词里充满了鼓励和谴责。这些年来,剧中的很多段落曾经浮现在我的脑海,然而此时此刻,我无法忘记《最后一次》中的歌词,它逐字逐句取自由汉密尔顿代写的华盛顿告别演说。当即将离任的总统歌颂“与我的同胞们愉快地分享自由政府治下完善法律的温暖”时,我无法不流下眼泪。

Hamilton

《汉密尔顿》

Rated PG-13. Bare-knuckle politics. Running time: 2 hours 40 minutes. Watch on Disney+.

PG-13级。含有残酷政治情节。片长:2小时40分钟。Disney+观看。