FlyTitle: Schumpeter

How a consultancy has ballooned into a white-collar leviathan

一家咨询公司如何长成了一头白领巨兽

经济学人双语版-埃森哲的不断崛起 The rise and rise of Accenture

MANAGEMENT CONSULTANTS thrive on a simple business model. First, scare companies by laying bare where they are failing. Then soothe them with counsel on how to improve. The scaring part has grown easier as technology upends one industry after another. Rare is the chief executive these days unconcerned about cyber-security, artificial intelligence (AI) or their online offering. The soothing, though, may have become harder. Who is a boss to trust when consultancies themselves are only slowly getting to grips with the meaning of technological upheaval?

管理顾问把一个简单的商业模式用得得心应手。首先明白地指出企业的不足,吓住它们。然后再提出改进的建议,安抚它们。随着技术颠覆了一个又一个行业,要吓住它们变得更容易了。如今很少有CEO不关心网络安全、人工智能,或自家提供的线上服务。不过安抚企业的难度可能加大了。咨询公司自己也才慢慢理解技术引发的剧变意味着什么,老板们该信谁呢?

To a growing number of CEOs the answer is Accenture. The firm, whose name is a portmanteau of “accent on the future”, certainly has pedigree when it comes to tech. It is descended from Arthur Andersen, an accounting-and-advisory giant which helped persuade General Electric to install a UNIVAC 1, corporate America’s first computer, in 1954. In 2000 Andersen Consulting finally severed its strained ties to its parent (whose remaining accountancy business was felled two years later by the Enron fraud scandal). It changed its name and, in 2001, listed on the stockmarket at a value of $14bn.

对越来越多的CEO来说,答案就是埃森哲。这家公司的名字“Accenture”是“accent on the future”(着眼未来)的合成词。就技术而言,它当然自有渊源。它是会计和咨询巨头安达信(Arthur Andersen)的后裔。1954年,安达信帮助说服通用电气安装了美国企业界第一台计算机UNIVAC 1。2000年,安盛咨询(Andersen Consulting)最终断绝了与母公司的紧张关系(安达信剩余的会计业务两年后被安然欺诈丑闻拖垮)。它更名并于2001年上市,市值140亿美元。

Since then its growth has been tentacular. Today around 200 clients are thought to pay Accenture at least $100m each annually to keep their tech humming. Its 500,000 or so employees perform menial functions (running clients’ overseas call centres or making their sales software connect properly to accounting) and more glamorous ones (uploading businesses to the cloud, designing their apps, building AI chatbots, even imagining their next ad campaign). Last year the firm’s revenues reached $43bn. Total shareholder returns, including dividends, come to 118% over the past five years, compared with 56% for the S&P 500 index. In February its market capitalisation hit $137bn.

自那以后,它开始了触角广泛的增长。据估计如今约有200个客户每年各向埃森哲支付至少一亿美元,以保持自己的技术顺畅运转。50万名左右的埃森哲员工既履行低端枯燥的职能(运营客户的海外客服中心,或让它们的销售软件与会计系统保持正常连接),也承担着比这更光鲜的工作(将业务上传到云端,为客户设计应用,打造人工智能聊天机器人,甚至为它们构思下一个广告活动)。去年该公司的收入达430亿美元。过去五年,包括股息在内的股东总回报率为118%,而标普500指数的数字是56%。2月,其市值达1370亿美元。

Two things help explain Accenture’s rise. One was beyond its control: technology’s role within companies has moved from the back office to the core of what many of them do—hence those corner-office jitters. The second factor was a tech-heavy soothing strategy. Pierre Nanterme, a Frenchman who led Accenture from 2011 until shortly before his death in January 2019, doubled down on all things analytics, mobile, cloud and cyber-security. Each year the firm spends roughly $1bn on around two dozen acquisitions to get on top of the buzziest tech trends. What Accenture calls “The New” now accounts for around two-thirds of its sales, up from one-third five years ago.

埃森哲的崛起或许有两个原因。第一个非它能控制:技术在企业内部的角色已经从后勤部门转移至许多企业的业务核心——因而在高管办公室内引发了惊慌。第二个因素是高科技含量的安抚策略。法国人皮埃尔·南特梅(Pierre Nanterme)从2011年开始领导埃森哲,直到2019年1月他去世前不久。他在与分析、移动、云及网络安全有关的所有事物上大笔下注。埃森哲每年花费约10亿美元展开约20多笔收购,以掌握最热门的技术趋势。埃森哲称之为“新”(The New)的业务现在约占公司销售总额的三分之二,五年前是三分之一。

“The New” complements Accenture’s older capabilities in a way that is hard for rivals to match. Unlike outsourcing competitors such as India’s Infosys or Tata Consultancy Services, it has management-consulting chops from the Andersen days. At the same time, in contrast to august strategy firms like McKinsey or accountant-advisers like Deloitte, EY or PwC, its army of relatively cheap white-collar labour, roughly half of it in India and the Philippines, can be enlisted to perform labour-intensive tasks such as taking down dodgy videos on social media (which Accenture does for Facebook and Google). A global footprint helps insulate it against downturns in any particular region. Despite rivals’ claims of the superiority of the limited-partnership model, which still dominates the industry, Accenture’s stockmarket listing does not appear to have hurt its growth.

“新”业务补充了埃森哲旧有的能力,令竞争对手难以企及。与印度的印孚瑟斯(Infosys)或塔塔咨询服务公司(Tata Consultancy Services)等外包竞争对手不同,埃森哲具备源自安盛时期的提供管理咨询的能力。与此同时,它还与麦肯锡等威严的战略公司或德勤、安永或普华永道等会计顾问公司形成鲜明对比,拥有相对廉价的白领大军(大约有一半在印度和菲律宾),可以招募他们执行劳动密集型的任务,比如从社交媒体上撤下可疑的视频(埃森哲为Facebook和谷歌提供这一服务)。业务覆盖全球这一点有助于抵御任何特定地区的低迷。尽管竞争对手宣称有限合伙制模式具优越性,而且这一模式也在业内占据主导,但埃森哲看上去并未因上市而损害增长。

The result is an unusual ability to offer clients a comprehensive service. Refocusing your business around a new app? Accenture will be on hand to write the code—but can also supply designers to make it look pretty. Need an ad blitz to sell it to consumers? Accenture’s marketing arm grossed $10bn in revenue last year, placing it among the five biggest ad groups in the world—it has become a creative agency not dissimilar from WPP or Publicis Groupe. Want to expand into new markets? Just ring one of its more than 200 offices in 51 countries.

这一切造就了埃森哲可为客户提供全面服务的不同寻常的能力。想围绕一款新应用重新定位你的业务?埃森哲随时都可以为你编写代码——但也可以为你提供设计师,让应用看起来漂亮些。需要发动一场广告闪电战把这款应用推介给消费者?埃森哲的营销部门去年的总收入达100亿美元,跻身全球五大广告集团之列。它已成为一个与WPP集团或阳狮集团(Publicis Groupe)无甚差别的创意机构。想打入新市场?给它遍布51个国家的200多个办事处中的某一个打个电话吧。

The question for Julie Sweet, an American who took charge in September, is whether Accenture can keep ballooning. She faces three challenges. First, the sheer scale of the firm already feels daunting. No listed corporation bar Amazon and Chinese hardware-makers added more employees in the 2010s. It is tricky to build a culture—and foster a sense of purpose that clever clogs now demand of their employers—that appeals to both buttoned-down database managers in Bangalore and tattooed creative directors in Spitalfields. Accenture has morphed into a white-collar conglomerate at a time when investors favour focused businesses. Its margins are less juicy than those of the Indian outsourcers.

美国人朱莉·斯威特(Julie Sweet)于去年9月走马上任,摆在她面前的问题是埃森哲是否还能继续壮大。她面临三个挑战。首先,该公司的庞大规模已经令人生畏。在上个十年,除了亚马逊和中国的硬件制造商外,没有哪家上市公司比它增聘了更多员工。很难打造出一种能让班加罗尔保守的数据库经理和斯皮塔菲尔德(Spitalfields)有纹身的创意总监都觉得有吸引力的文化,以及那些自命不凡之人如今要求雇主具备的使命感。在投资者青睐专注型企业的时候,埃森哲却变成了一家白领企业集团。它的利润不如那些印度外包商丰厚。

The second challenge is an economic downturn, like the one that looks increasingly possible as covid-19 goes pandemic. Recessions hurt consultants as cash-strapped clients focus on survival rather than expansion. Accenture weathered the financial crisis of 2007-09 but its revenues sank. Its share price has now fallen as it did back then, this time by a quarter since its February peak, faster than the covid-infected markets as a whole.

第二个挑战是经济衰退。随着新冠肺炎在全球流行,一场衰退看上去越发有可能发生。经济衰退会打击咨询公司,因为资金紧张的客户会集中精力求生存,而不是扩张。埃森哲挺过了2007至2009年的金融危机,但收入下降了。这一次它的股价和当时一样出现了下跌,较2月份的峰值跌去了四分之一,幅度超过了受新冠影响的市场的总体水平。

Ms Sweet’s final predicament is perhaps the most consequential. If her firm keeps doing such a bang-up job in convincing clients that technology is central to their success, more of them might opt to build and run a bigger slice of it in-house rather than splurging on outside advice. Accenture seems at times to suggest that companies should let its consultants handle not just their brand and tech innards, but also their power to innovate.

斯威特的最后一个困境也许最为重大。如果她的公司在说服客户认同技术对它们的成功至关重要这一点上继续无往不利,那么更多客户可能就会选择在内部构建和运营更大比重的技术,而不是花大价钱寻求外部建议。埃森哲似乎有时会建议企业不单把品牌和技术内部事务托付给它的顾问们,也把创新力问题交给他们。

Tech tonic

科技补品

Still, the Nanterme-era digital strategy has life in it yet. Many companies are behind in the technology race. Before most so much as ask themselves how zippy 5G networks, the “Internet of Things” or machine learning will transform their businesses, Accenture already has some answers. If someone, some day, finds a function for blockchain, expect Accenture to be there to advise bosses on its use—and to soothe frayed nerves.■

不过,南特梅时代的数字战略仍有其生命力。许多公司在技术竞赛中都落于人后。在大多数企业都还没有自问飞快的5G网络、物联网或机器学习将如何改变它们的业务时,埃森哲就已经有了一些答案。如果有一天有人发现了区块链的一个功用,埃森哲说不定就会现身,就区块链的使用向老板们提供建议,并舒缓他们紧张的情绪。